In the 1970s, M.S. Whittingham of Exxon used titanium sulfide as the positive electrode material and lithium metal as the negative electrode material to make the first lithium battery.
In 1980, J. Goodenough discovered that lithium cobaltate can be used as a positive electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.
In 1982, R.R. Agarwal and J.R. Selman of the Illinois Institute of Technology discovered that lithium ions have the property of being embedded in graphite, which is fast and reversible. At the same time, lithium-ion batteries made of metallic lithium have attracted much attention, so people have tried to make rechargeable batteries by utilizing the characteristics of lithium-ion-embedded graphite. The first available lithium ion graphite electrode was successfully produced by Bell Labs.
In 1983, M. Thackeray and J. Goodenough discovered that manganese spinel is an excellent positive electrode material with low cost, stability and excellent conductivity and lithium guiding properties. The decomposition temperature is high, and the oxidation is much lower than that of lithium cobaltate. Even if short circuit or overcharge occurs, the risk of burning and explosion can be avoided.
In 1989, A. Manthiram and J. Goodenough discovered that a positive electrode with a polymeric anion would produce a higher voltage.