Lithium batteries were first used in pacemakers. The lithium battery has a very low self-discharge rate and a flat discharge voltage, so that the pacemaker implanted in the human body can operate for a long time without recharging. Lithium batteries generally have a nominal voltage higher than 3.0 volts, making them more suitable for use as integrated circuit power supplies. Manganese dioxide batteries are widely used in calculators, digital cameras, and watches.
In order to develop more excellent varieties, various materials have been studied to create an unprecedented product.
In 1992, Sony successfully developed lithium-ion batteries. Its practicality has greatly reduced the weight and volume of portable electronic devices such as mobile phones, notebooks, and calculators.