The temperature has a great influence on the capacity of the lead-acid battery, generally with the decrease of temperature, the decrease of capacity, and the relationship between capacity and temperature.
When the temperature of the electrolyte is lowered, the viscosity of the electrolyte increases, the ions are subjected to a large resistance, the diffusion capacity is decreased, the electrolyte resistance is also increased, the electrochemical reaction resistance is increased, and a part of the lead sulfate cannot be normally converted. The charge acceptance capacity is decreased. As a result, the battery capacity is reduced.
The effect of the termination voltage on the battery capacity. When the battery is discharged to a certain voltage value, the voltage drops sharply. In fact, the energy obtained is very small. If the battery is deeply discharged for a long time, the damage to the battery is quite large. Therefore, it must be at a certain voltage. The value terminates the discharge, and the cut-off discharge voltage is called the discharge termination voltage.
In the battery, there is a big difference in the utilization ratio of the active materials in the upper and lower parts of the plate. Experiments have confirmed that at the initial stage of discharge, the current density on the upper part of the plate is about 2 times to 2.5 times higher than that in the lower part. The change in discharge is gradually reduced, but the upper portion is larger than the lower current density.