How lithium batteries work

- Jul 28, 2019-

Lithium metal battery:

A lithium metal battery is generally a battery using manganese dioxide as a positive electrode material, metallic lithium or an alloy metal thereof as a negative electrode material, and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution.

Basic principle of lithium battery

Discharge reaction: Li+MnO2=LiMnO2

Lithium Ion Battery:

A lithium ion battery is generally a battery using a lithium alloy metal oxide as a positive electrode material, graphite as a negative electrode material, and a nonaqueous electrolyte.

The reaction that occurs on the charged positive electrode is

LiCoO2==Li(1-x)CoO2+XLi++Xe-(electron)

The reaction occurring on the charging negative electrode is

6C+XLi++Xe- = LixC6

Rechargeable battery total reaction: LiCoO2+6C = Li(1-x)CoO2+LixC6

positive electrode Cathode material: There are many optional cathode materials, and most of the mainstream products use lithium iron phosphate. Different cathode material comparisons: LiCoO2 3.7 V 140 mAh/g Li2Mn2O4 4.0 V 100 mAh/g LiFePO4 3.3 V 100 mAh/g Li2FePO4 3.6 V 115 mAh/g Positive electrode reaction: Lithium ions are embedded during discharge, and lithium ions are deintercalated during charging. When charging: LiFePO4 → Li1-xFePO4 + xLi+ + xe-discharge: Li1-xFePO4 + xLi+ + xe- → LiFePO4. negative electrode Anode material: Graphite is mostly used. New research has found that titanate may be a better material. Negative electrode reaction: Lithium ions are deintercalated during discharge, and lithium ions are embedded during charging. When charging: xLi+ + xe- + 6C → LixC6 When discharging: LixC6→ xLi+ + xe- + 6C